What are Hormones?

Hormones refer to the special chemical messengers or the carriers of the human body. These chemical substances are formed in the human endocrine glands or the human endocrine system. These special chemical messengers are involved in controlling most of the body functions right from primary needs to complex system and other function like reproduction and emotions.

Important activities of hormones include:

  • Food metabolism.
  • Controlling thirst.
  • Maintaining body temperature.
  • Regulating mood and cognitive functioning.
  • Growth and development of prompting cell or tissue. 
  • Initiating and maintaining sexual development and reproduction.

Including humans, plants and animals are also have their own hormone-producing glands, which functions in their growth and development.

The human body has different types of hormones, some have a major role to play in the well-being and health of a human body, which is important to protect and manage our health. 

Growth hormone, synthesized and secreted by cells of the pituitary gland is mainly responsible for the synthesis of protein, growth of cells, tissues and stimulation of the cell division – What is mitosis and MeiosisMitosis and meiosis are the types of cell division, which takes place in the nuclei of the living cells.

Here, let us learn some of the interesting facts about the hormones.

Facts about Hormones

Fact- NO-1

Not all hormones are secreted from the human endocrine system. There are many hormones, which can be synthesized from the ovary, testes and also from the brain. Apart from the endocrine system,  there are other organs and tissues which produce and secrete hormones. Intestines secrete a hormone called gastrin, fats cells produce hormones, which functions by sending signals to the brain and a lot more.

Fact- NO-2

Estrogen is called the female sex hormone, while testosterone is called the male sex hormone but men and women need both estrogen and testosterone, which are synthesized by our body cells and are important for overall health.

Fact- NO-3

Estrogens are the female sex hormone, which is responsible for the development and regulation of the female reproductive system and secondary sex characteristics. Apart from the female reproductive system, estrogen hormone is also required by our brain, which plays a primary role in learning, memory protecting against stroke damage and Alzheimer’s disease.

Fact- NO-4

The production or the synthesis of oxytocin, estrogen and cortisol hormones are high during the process of parturition or the childbirth in the female reproductive system. All these hormones play a major role in the contractions of the uterine, myometrium and the relaxation of the pelvic ligaments and the release of milk for the breastfeeding.

Fact- NO-5

Vitamin D is the only vitamin, which is also called the hormone. Exposure to more sunlight, an individual can likely elevate testosterone levels. There is a positive correlation between vitamin D and testosterone levels.

Fact- NO-6

It is well known that the intake of alcohol affects our health in a number of ways. It is one for the main factor responsible for different health disorders, including liver damage,  heart disease and stroke. According to scientists and their researches, the alcohol also has widespread effects on the endocrine system. The causes include:

  1. Increase the risk of osteoporosis.
  2. Reduce testosterone levels in men by damaging the testes. 
  3. Intake of more alcohol can impair the regulation of blood-sugar levels.

Fact- NO-7

Sleep deprivation can be a major factor in the origin of type 2 diabetes. A single night of sleeplessness can stimulate insulin resistance in our body cells.

Fact- NO-8

Brains need testosterone to thrive!

According to the WHO research reports, testosterone, which is called the primary male sex hormone is required for the proper functioning of the human’s brain. The under secretion or low levels of testosterone in the blood cells causes a decline in brain function and it is a risk factor for dementia and other mental disorders.

This was a brief introduction to the key facts and information about hormones and their functions.

To learn more about the hormones, their types and its related topic, visit us at BYJU’S BIOLOGY and also learn more by watching various Biology related videos by subscribing to the BYJU’S YouTube Channel.